The social transformation in post-totalitarian countries is characterised by extraordinarily dynamic differentiation tendencies. With respect to social groups and territorial communities, these tendencies differ or are even contradictory, resulting in an internal social and territorial polarisation in the national systems concerned. These polarisation processes are, on the one hand, a reaction to the equalising tendencies in communist countries, and, on the other hand, are the result of the need for qualitative changes to social structures. One such structure is the regional organisation of society, which owing to the heterogeneous nature of the conditions it exists in has very specific features. Essentially it is the environmental organisation of society, where the effects of social and natural factors are combined. Consequently, there is typically a higher level of territorial inequality in the distribution of economic activities than in social distribution, and, by contrast, less variability of geographical differentiation than social differentiation. These features are demonstrated in an empirical analysis of the current development in the Czech Republic, wherein a distinction is made between two ways of assessing regional distribution. First, there is the assessment of differentiation of the territorial intensity of economic activities (economic aggregate/km2). Second, there is the assessment of relative economic and social development (economic aggregate/inhabitant). Despite the differences in the level and variability of the two types of regional differentiation, there are similar trends in their development, heading towards greater inequalities.