The aim of the paper is to introduce into scholary circulation rich material connected with the historical and geographical aspect of the culture of the Prussians and their neighbours and to direct attention to the importance of archaeological materials for the study of historical geography of the southeastern Baltic region. Part I is composed of two subchapters. The first is devoted to outlining the history of research, especially archaeological into the history and culture of the Prussians, starting from the first writings and excavations till the first half of the 20th century. The evaluation of work of researchers active in East Prussia in the first half of 20th c. is not unanimous, however thanking to their good methodology of field studies they gave an important contribution to the archaeological study of the region. The author expresses also his critical attitude to the activities of some Soviet researchers, who studied that region after the Second World War. In the last decades the study was conducted by Polish, Russian and Lithuanian scholars. Owing to all these scientific activities we are now in possession of huge source material that enables us to take up various issues, both general and specific ones as well. Subchapter 2 includes the characteristics of the natural environment and changing settlement patterns of the discussed region starting from the Stone Age until the Bronze Age.