Assessment of the Polish transformation proved to be a controversial subject. Over a number of years it seemed clear that transformation was highly successful in introducing rather quickly a democratic liberal system together with a market economy. Lately, however, this was put in doubt, when an anti-liberal stand was adopted by the governing party and the idea of creating a state based on social solidarity was announced, while issues of economic policies received only minor attention. This represented an attempt to change the actual role of the state. For economics the nature of the economic system and the role of the state are the issues of fundamental importance. It is nowadays widely agreed that the market mechanism, although essential for economic efficiency, cannot be left to itself in view of the menace it creates for future development. Active government is needed both to assist and to apply corrective policies. These ideas found expression in the programmes of the European Union which determine the responsibility of the state in influencing the development processes by working out a rational blend of economic, social and ecological policies.