Ever since its first formulation in the 1970s the so called chaos theory has held great appeal for the humanities, philosophy and social sciences. Until the late 1990s many literary studies papers inspired by chaos theory included the observation that only time could tell whether the terminological transfer from physics and mathematics could provide the enrichment for the discipline and about the additional insight into literature gained by the adaptation of the scientific concepts. By now one can state that 'chaos-theoretical' literary studies have produced some insights into literature and many into the field of the literary studies. The adaptation of chaos theory by the literary studies can be seen as a gauge of self-reflection and -observation of the discipline. In presenting some similarities as well as differences between chaos theoretically influenced literary studies and the literary studies under the paradigm of constructivism, the author would like to demonstrate the mechanisms of cultural self-reflection and -assurance by means of the literary studies.