The aim of the paper was to present the contemporary theories on the nature of intelligence and possibilities of their introduction into the school and pre-school practice. At the beginning, the questions of traditional approach to the intelligence and shortcomings of traditional assessment methods of intelligence are described. There are presented the following theories: triarchic theory of intelligence by R. Sternberg, theory of nonuniversal development by D. Feldman and multiple intelligence theory by H. Gardner. The possibilities of taking advantage of these ideas for children abilities diagnosis and stimulations (Project Spectrum, conception of school concentrated on child) are outlined. The authoress' own researches were carried out on the group of six-years old children using 'intelligence fair' materials created on the basis of H. Gardner's ideas. These researches aimed to the empirical verification of the validation of proposed diagnosis system for six-years old children. The example of research strategy connected with Spectrum Project approach, i.e. quality and quantity analysis (descriptive and graphical presentation of child intelligence profile), is given. Within the range of most intelligences children gained in particular tasks results that were independent from one another - that confirms the H. Gardner's view about the relative independence of seven intelligences. At most children there were discovered abilities in at least one type of intelligence - most frequent there were concentrated within the field of the following domains: musical, visual and spatial, intrapersonal. Results suggest that the form of research being used, makes it possible to receive multiple description of children abilities, records the dynamic and change in child's behaviour within the particular range and may be very helpful in more precise description of child's ability profile.