ANALYSIS OF ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL CHANGES
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This paper deals with the problem of life strategies, their creating, existing and changing. Presented model is based on the theory of Conrad Kottak representing cultural ecology school. We try to explain the choice of the concrete life strategy by the citizens in the village Liptovská Teplicka (northern Slovakia) depending on the characteristics of the environment and the set of implicit assumptions about the world: worldview. Following Kottak, we try to take into consideration two basic characteristics of citizen's worldview - access to goods and exposition to disturbances providing four basic ecotypes. Using this model, we try to explain changes in adaptation strategies in 1990-ties in relation to worldview change by two populations living in our target village - Slovak and Roma. Several predictions concerning negative phenomena (marginality and fatalism, e.g.) can follow our explication and provide source of hypotheses for further research. Our ethnographic analysis showed that Slovak and Roma inhabitants differ not only in the base of living sources, but also in the ecotype they belong to. For example, many facts testify that the majority of the Roma population belongs to the ecotype called 'subculture of poverty' that might lead to the feelings of marginality, fatalism, aggressivity and to other phenomena considered negative by the rest of the society. Different situation could be observed in the Slovak (majority) population. Before the collectivization of agriculture in the 70-ies of the 20-th century (and probably also later until the beginning of 90-ies) their adaptational strategy could be included into the 'peasant' ecotype. Different situation can be observed in the Slovak (majority) population. Before the collectivization of agriculture in the 70-ies of the 20-th century (and probably also later until the beginning of 90-ies) their adaptational strategy included into the ecotype “peasant”. This situation began to change especially after the economical changes at the beginning of 90-ies of the 20-th century. New supplement sources of living (mainly private enterprise in travelling) led to the change of the niche, but they were connected with increased risk and more difficult availability of goods. It means the major part of the Slovak population shifted to the ecotype culture of poverty, while in this case we can expect additional negative phenomena mentioned in the Roma population.
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