India is currently the seventh nuclear power in the world. After the 1998 tests the arms race between India and Pakistan has increased. Moreover, the ultimate intentions of political elites are unclear. Border conflict is still unresolved. In this article a few known facts and hypothesis connected with research and development of India's nuclear power have been analyzed The author aims at two different issues. The first one is a consideration of historical background of the most important processes leading to such nuclear challenge and an outline of international circumstances, which accelerated or delayed it. The second aim is to show people who were and are the most important figures involved in this program. Because many processes, quoted in the article, have its roots far in the past, this short draft should be useful in understanding present, often very complicated political situation in South Asia.