The paper comprises a review of researches, mainly monographs and longer theoretical treatises, on the changes of meanings and scopes of the terms 'textology', 'academic editing', 'canonical text' and 'artistic intention'. According to the authoress, the space encompassing the work on the textual basis is too narrow to incorporate two independent disciplines; thus textology and academic editing were given the same goals. Textology, which -as a term - was taken over from Russian science, is understood as a study of text in general. 'Academic editing' seems to be a term closer to the discipline in question. Academic editing - according to the idea contained here - can have exclusively theoretical, or theoretical and practical goals. Its theoretical speculations would deal with the examination of the history of all accounts of the text and with the understanding of the author's intention recorded in drafts, notes and letters. The practical aim would cover the preparation of a critical edition.