The article presents the results of the analysis of 20 of the most popular surnames on the current Germany territory. The research has used amongst others data from the Vervandt (www.verwandt.de) internet service. It has been estimated that 4,06% of German population has Polish surnames, which appears to represent a line of Germans of Polish origin. The diversity of their distribution helps to describe the direction of the migrants' movement from Polish ethnic areas and migration routes within the German ethnic area. The analysis of the presence of surnames also shows an affiliation to different language groups and that dividing antagonisms were not obstacles to the process of mixing of the two societies. The best known and thoroughly researched area with the presence of surnames of Polish origin is in the region of the Ruhr Coal Basin on the present territory of Germany.