TURKEY'S POLICY TOWARDS THE BALKAN NATIONS AND STATES AT THE TURN OF 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY (Polityka Turcji wobec narodów i panstw balkanskich na przelomie XIX i XX wieku)
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Turkey's policy towards the Balkan peoples, since the attack on the Peninsula, was characterized by a desire to dominate and the total subordination of the local population. Therefore, immediately after the conquest, the Turkish authorities have pushed them to the margins of social life. Extensive system of benefits and duties, and thereafter the draconian taxes had ruined Balkan villages and towns, contributing to the decline of agricultural production and handicrafts. Any form of resistance were ruthlessly suppressed by the Turks, and the raging terror during the occupation had consumed hundreds of thousands of lives. Despite these actions the Ottomans were unable to break the spirit of resistance. Neither persecution nor attempt Islamisation of Balkan populations did not produce any effect, because one of the main reasons was attachment to the traditions and faith of their ancestors. When the Turkish state has slowed and European powers had began to intervene in the internal affairs of the state, Greeks, Serbs, Montenegros, Bulgarians, Romanians, also Albanians, began efforts to throw off foreign domination. These activities were indirectly ended by the Congress of Berlin in 1878, and the so-called final solution of the Turkish issues occurred during the Balkan wars of the years 1912-1913.
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