Veliko Srediste is a settlement situated in Serbian Banat, in Voivodina, near the town of Vrsac. This contribution tries to find an answer to the issues relating to ethnogenesis of the Czech speaking inhabitants, who have been neglected by ethnologists, anthropologists, or historians researching the Czech speaking communities abroad. The contribution is based on the new hitherto not used resources provided by the archive of the Synodic Council in Prague as well as by the Regional History Archive in the village of Bela Crkva. The author discovered other important resources in the location concerned where he did large field research work. Taking into consideration those resources, one can refute the theses on ethnogenesis of Czechs in Velike Srediste. Such theses assert Protestants from Svata Helena, a Czech village in Rumania founded after 1820, to have been the first Czech colonists. In his contribution, the author interprets transmigration of the Czech speaking inhabitants as the process of migration consisting of three compact colonization waves reaching their peak with the large 'Moravian' colonization wave in the 1950s. He records the historical development of Protestants since the end of the World War I, trying to explain the assimilation of Czech Roman Catholics within a larger group of German Roman Catholics.