The article presents a review of the most important trends in the economic policy of the People's Republic of Poland. Undoubtedly, they resulted from Poland's incorporation into the area of influence of the Soviet Union. That entailed implementation of the Soviet economic model. Being part of the communist empire, Poland could not adopt the policy aimed at guaranteeing modern economic growth and satisfactory improvement of the living conditions. The 45 years of the communist rule were responsible for separating the economy from trends in leading civilized countries. That led to a structural economic crisis and, consequently to the collapse of the system imposed on Poland in 1944.