The analysis of a strategy of nationalization of peasants' national awareness in the Kingdom of Poland proves that the basic role in this process was played by the idea of the man as Subject. Konrad Prószynski, whose views were of pivotal importance for the alphabetization of millions of peasants in the Kingdom, treated education of agrarian population as a tool for their subjectivization. He strongly advocated self study, due mainly to the weakness of village education but also as a means of awakening individualistic and subject values such as self control, self knowledge, growth of individual capacities among the peasants. Prószynski instilled in his readers a belief that individual's talents and aspirations are what constitutes the value of man. Education is seen here in the ethical categories, in which affirmation of subject ideals was combined with an imperative to recognize dignity of each individual as a Subject. In the author's opinion the ideal of man as a Subject formed a basis for development of national awareness of peasants. Prószynski and other educational activists from the intelligentsia circles encouraged this ideal among the common people.