In this article I analyse nicknames and surnames denoting moral and mental features and the features of character and temper evidenced in historical Polish documents on the Polish-East Slavonic borderland. This borderland is a specific area of research because the proces of settlement, which developed over several centuries, has been characterized by its ethnic and religious plurality resulting in a cultural plurality. Taking into consideration axiology enabled to perceive the axological aspect of surnames as means of conveying moral values of human beings. The negative surnames reflecting antivalues are more frequent and they include a variety of synonyms that reveal the system of values by contrast. The important conclusion seems to be that most of the given values turn out to remain the same for centuries and throughout cultural areas.