The article presents results of the study on scientific potential of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences (APS) of Ukraine, conducted in 2008-2009. Main tendencies in the development of the APS (established in 1992 with the status of higher sectorial scientific institution for scientific support to higher, secondary, primary and pre-school education) are found. Methods and information sources cover retrospective analysis, analysis of data from official statistics, sociological data from questioning researchers and detailed interviews with directors of eight APS institutes. Modules of questionnaires include change in research themes and types; research personnel and post-graduate training, information and technical support, national and international collaboration, research performance and uses, evaluation of the external environment and legal base. A key objective of the study is to find out what kind of change is required to improve organization of research and administration in the APS. Conclusions made from the study concern the character of change in the APS since 1992; existence of external pressures on the APS efficiency; insufficiency of international integration of the APS. According to interviewed directors, efficiency constraints stem mainly from insufficient financing, and no radical reorganization of the APS is needed, but only some reforms. Basically, problems and working results of the APN are comparable with ones found in the institutes of social sciences and humanities, subordinated to the NAS of Ukraine, confirming that natural and technological disciplines in Ukraine demonstrate more significant results recognized both domestically and internationally.