Typografie pod drobnohledem: rubriky a ozdůbky v ivančických tiscích v letech 1564-1578
Pilcrows and Printer’s Ornaments of the Bohemian Brethren (1562-1578):
Languages of publication
Small typographic elements such as pilcrows, pointing fingers, and type-ornaments optically separated the typeset and helped the reader to grasp the text. The latter also boosted the aesthetic quality of the printed work. However, whether such material occurs in a book and to what extent varies with time, genre, and printing house. Any specific use reflects not only the typesetter practice but can also indicate the intentions of the particular printer (printing house) or reading habits of the intended readership. Considering that the Brethren bishops carefully scrutinised and supervised every edition printed in their illegal printing house in Ivančice (South Moravia), one can assume a thoughtful and discreet attitude towards the content, likewise the typography. The present study explores the visual practices adopted by the Brethren for the typesetting of hymnbooks, Bibles, and confessions. The aim is to provide a detailed account of the design and function of the Brethren pilcrows and printers’ ornaments based on a typography analysis of all known pieces printed between 1562-1578 on the Brethren press. The results provide strong evidence that the Brethren developed a sophisticated typographical system to strengthen and partly to reform the Brethren liturgy. The unique way of the Brethren for marking stanzas and repetition within the printed hymns using pilcrows and “trefoil” is an entirely new finding. Whatsmore, a comparison of the Brethren’s book with similar production published by the local printers indicates unprecedented precision of the Brethren’s typesetters devoted to the graphic design of the liturgical texts (hymnbooks, Bibles). Considering the extant historical sources, the outcomes presented here indicate a systematic effort to implement a unified order into Brethren liturgy urged by the leading Brethren bishops.
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