Scientists all over the world make intensive investigations in nanoscience and nanotechnology for implemetation of their results in human activity. In the review literary data and results of own researches in nanoscience and nanotechnologies are summarized, especially their technical, medical and social aspects. Electron-beam technology of atomic-molecular beams for production of metallic oxides nanoparticles was eborated. It was shown, that nanoparticles of copper oxide and silver oxide have much more significant antimicrobial activity than usual oxides of these metals. Special attention was paid to necessity of development economically sound technologies for production of nanomaterials and thorough study of its influence on live organisms and environment.