The aim of the article is to demonstrate the distinctiveness of different Italian schools of polychorality and their influence on local creative output in Central Europe. Musical repertory of the court of Polish kings during the last years of the reign of Zygmunt III, the reign of Wladyslaw IV and the beginning of Jan Kazimierz's reign showed a clear opposition of polychorality in prima and seconda pratica. The first was practiced by Giovanni Francesco Anerio and Marco Scacchi, who were Asprilio Pacelli's successors to the position of the royal maestro di capella, as well as in some compositions of local musicians influenced by them, e.g. Bartlomiej Pekiel and Marcin Mielczewski. Apart from the two known exceptions constituted by Mielczewski's compositions for 'Venetian' vocal-instrumental choirs of varying registers, the extant polychoral output in the old style and in concertato style from the courts of Polish Vasas in the second quarter of the seventeenth century displays a striking preference for the practice of employing identical choirs. This was the mark imprinted on the Vasa musicians by the maestri di cappella from Rome - Luca Marenzio, Pacelli, Anerio and Scacchi. The analysis of this repertoire permits to discern its characteristic features and compare it with the polychoral music composed at the court of Habsburgs at that time.