The aim of the article is to determine relations between food consumption and income level of households. The special attention has been given to the person with particularly low income as well as to the problems of malnutrition. The level of food needs satisfaction has been determined on the base of income elasticity of demand for food coefficients. It results from the study that nutrition needs in the low income groups of the population are not met. This is reflected in high level of coefficients of income elasticity of demand. The consumption of basic foodstuffs is low. At least 20% of the population and over 30% of children are malnourished. On the other hand there is a market surplus of food because of insufficient purchasing power of the population. The best way for improvement in nutrition of part of the population could be an increase in economic access to food market. This can be done not only through higher level and scope of social subsidies, but also through creation of new employment opportunities and augmenting of income from labour. Without reduction of unemployment the number of people who need food aid will be growing. However, the development of new working places is too slow in Poland. That is why food aid is still and will be a very important factor improving nutrition level of poor population.