The article focuses on the stream of the historical study of Russian and Soviet history labelled as revisionism in Western historiography, where it pays special attention to the research of the October Revolution in 1917. It discusses the circumstances of the rise of revisionism in American historiography from the end of the 1960s to the mid-1980s. In the second part, selected starting points of revision are compared and distinguished in terms of ideal type from the previous totalitarian interpretation. The text points to differences in approaches and interpretations by revisionists, but at the same time emphasizes their unifying interest in the neglected social and economic conflicts in Russian society since the beginning of the 20th century and the interaction of social groups, political parties and state power. It also reminds us of the revisionist thesis that we cannot understand the events of October only through the ideological influence of the Bolsheviks or their allegedly conspiratorial efforts to acquire power. The revisionists, through archival research, have shown that the Bolsheviks gained greater and authentic support from the Petrograd masses before the overthrow of the Provisional Government than has been admitted until now.