In the recent years the term 'social capital' has come into wide use in many different social sciences. Recently has been also growing interest in links between social capital and economic performance. It has become common for economic theorists and researchers to observe and analyze the trust, social networks, social norms and voluntary associations. It is claimed that social capital is a complementary factor to other forms of capital that may help to explain the different levels of prosperity and different rates of economic development among countries. Paper surveys research on social capital in Poland. Article critically reviews the Polish theoretical studies on the role of social capital; the author explores concepts of social capital in Polish economic and sociologic literature. Paper also provides investigations of empirical research on the social capital in Poland. This part of analysis is mainly based on two surveys: 'Diagnoza Społeczna 2005' and bulletins of CBOS. The author argues that while the Polish economic literature has started to produce both theoretical insight and empirical research on social capital, a number of conceptual and statistical problems exist. This is a cause to continue the efforts.