THE PROBLEMS OF EDITOR LUDWIK GUMPLOWICZ WITH THE OFFICE OF THE STATE ATTORNEY IN KRAKOW (1869-1871). THE SUPPLEMENT OF THE HISTORY OF AUSTRIAN CENSORSHIP OF THE PRESS IN AUTONOMOUS GALICIA (Polish title below)
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(Polish title: Redaktora Ludwika Gumplowicza potyczki z krakowska C. K. Prokuratoria Panstwa (1869-1871). Przyczynek do dziejow cenzury w Galicji autonomicznej). Ludwik Gumplowicz became an editor of Kraj in Krakow in October 1869 and soon he had the first contact with the watchful Austrian censorship. The articles which promoted national independence within the federation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, criticized the authorities or the army, or which had the liberal tone, made the Krakow office of the State Attorney take some measures. Although the constitution, the press law (passed in 1862) and its liberal amendments (1868), along with two press control acts from March 1869 guaranteed the freedom of speech, the state officials were still quite oppressive. Gumplowicz was an anticlerical who criticized fiercely the political and social status quo in Krakow and was rejected by the conservative elites of Krakow. As a result some of his newspaper's issues were confiscated and he went to court to demand compensations. He was frequently accused of breaking the law after publishing uncompromising articles in his newspaper but, in most cases, he was acquitted. In his court battles he showed his oratorical talent and anti-loyalist fierceness and used his legal education and experience as well (he studied law and worked as a solicitor). In the article we are trying to analyse the political significance of the incriminated articles and, by studying the court archives, examine how the court worked, and the law was executed, what were the motives of the legal action against Gumplowicz and how he defended himself in court.
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