Kierkegaard was a fierce critic of ecclesiastic institutions. His objections were mainly directed against arbitrary deviations from the letter of the New Testament, which had led to pernicious dichotomies: a fighting church versus a triumphant church, an imitator versus an admirer. He argued against theses spurious distinctions that the essence of Christianity lay purely in the existential effort of an individual who stands firmly by his/her religion, who perseveres in an act of faith before God and who follows the ways of Christ. Consequently Kierkegaard deprecated mass movements in the church and deplored religious communality that arose from a close cooperation between the church and the state. The church must be concerned with supernatural issues, the state has only earthly interests. Their domains should be kept separate. The church should only apply herself to the transmission of the message of the New Testament and to its defense.