The study is a part of a collective project focused on interpretation of the key Slovak literary works of the 20th C. The aim of it is to read the known and in the case of a work of Frantisek Hecko: 'Cervené vino' (The Red Wine), also the classicised works in confrontation with the previously made interpretations. The starting point for the interpretation is textological; it is a comparison of several editions of The red Wine, while the decisive conceptive differences occur mostly in comparison of the first and all other following editions. The next step of our work was a typological identification of the work. The significant changes of the first edition of the text made by the author himself (1948), having been followed in the all the editions up to now, can be explained predominantly by outside circumstances, that means establishment of the Communist regime in 1948 and a radically new cultural politics, which negated hard plural model of literature having been respected until that time. Hecko adapted to this situation. He responded as an embattled socialistic writer and that was why he reduced in the novel much of that what belongs to the main natural resources of The Red Wine: motives, in which folk Catholicism had appeared, biblical lexical layer, as well as oral and ethic bases characteristic for the Christian cultural model. He changed markedly the end of the novel and he put into it a class aspect - required by the period and the regime. The interpretation is an attempt to reveal the former conceptual bases of Hecko's writing and to point out to the non - organic changes in his novel, which were required by the historical situation.