The article marks an effort to systematically consider the problem of social capital in its aspects connected with social inequalities in access to education. The author is particularly interested in the possibility of explaining the reasons for the worse situation of rural youth in terms of access to education than that of young people from urban areas. He adopts as a staring point for his analysis three basic concepts of the specific character of social capital (as formulated by: Robert Putnam, James Coleman, and Pierre Bourdieu) and tries to determine the probable scope of research relating to the functioning of the educational system in rural areas. He also formulates a number of explanatory hypotheses. In accordance with its title the article has the character of theoretical preliminaries and constitutes a preamble to further investigations concerning the relation between social capital and education in rural areas.