The paper deals with trends, challenges and applications of worldwide urban anthropology. It brings a comparative view of historical developments and of contemporary theoretical, methodological and thematic schools, directions and tendencies in the development of the urban anthropology. The author presents her subjective reflections on older and recent literature, and identifies three areas of urban-anthropological research of the present day: city and people; city and space; and city and culture. In addition to the theoretical contributions of urban anthropology on multidisciplinary urban studies, she emphasises also the importance of applied anthropological research in urban place-making and governance. On the basis of global trends in urban anthropological studies, she suggests their implications on the Slovak urban anthropological research.