The article shows the activities of Polish archaeological services and Polish-Ukrainian relations in archaeolgy in eastern Little Poland and Volhynia (today western Ukraine) in the years 1919-1939. The Second Polish Republic created new organizational structures for protection of archaeological remains. In 1920 the State Board of Inspectors of Prehistoric Remains was formed. In 1928 its responsibilities were taken over by the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw (PMA). The PMA was the largest and most important archaeological institution in Poland at the years 1919-1939, with a wide range of responsibilities. After the Second World War, archaeologists at the PMA studied most of the material from western Ukraine which was to be found in the Museum's collection.