The study deals with the conceptualization of school culture and outlines the results of research of the school cultures of 34 elementary schools in Slovakia. Some features of school culture, for example the physical environment of the school, tradition, style of management, staff cohesion, symbols and rituals, as seen by different actors of the school, are analysed in relation to the successfulness of the school, that is, the test results in mathematics and Slovak language and the admission rate of elementary school pupils to secondary schools. The results indicate that better school results are linked to the importance of tradition and innovation, socialization and participation, material and technical equipment, social ties and school openness. The study points to the existence of several specific, and partly overlapping, cultures in schools, namely the culture of teachers, pupils and management. The results are discussed with reference to Durkheim's ideas of moral education.