One of the immanent features of the capitalist economy, i.e. incomplete employment, that is, unemployment is considered. In author's thinking, compatible with Karl Marx's views, there is no capitalist way of production without the existence of unemployment, the so-called reserve labour army. After reminding the different types of unemployment and its theories, and also the category of the organic composition of capital, he comes to the conclusion that the trends and types of technical progress by its distinctly anti-employment tendency lead to the intensification of the phenomenon of unemployment. An attempt at a statistical theory of formulation of the category of organic composition of capital is also presented. In the final parts of the paper some ways of combating unemployment were discussed, essential in the present situation of the Polish economy. These are:(1) so-called ecological agriculture, (2) the question of pensions and sick pensions, and (3) shortening of the work time.