The concept of genres was developed in ethnomusicology and folklore research under the influence of surveying the relation between song occasion a song repertory: on the hand of specific functional bindings the song genre was formed, characterized by inner homogeneity and consistence in the text and melodies. The main aspect is to state criteria, which enable us to define the song group as a genre. Most of the authors take into account three aspects and their combination: 1. Archival funds, 2. Published collections, 3. Proper results of the fieldwork. The article summarizes fieldwork procedures in studying the song genres. It enumerates some aspects, mentioning the range of the repertory, the manner of gathering data and their complexity. At present most of the traditional song genres exist in a latent form, or are related to the new folklore movement. The importance of the genre research is based on the tendency to reconstruct the view on the genres and the song occasions. They are connected with the so-called 'oral-history' - reconstructing memory of the bearers of the songs. The oral sources ask for a critical access. The authoress demonstrates the problems mentioned according to her field research, gained in studying the meadow songs. Genre is a complex category, which has a meta-context of its own and integrates different aspects in studying traditional culture. Ethnomusicologists can't retrieve or stand for the special work of ethnology or folklore research. Fieldwork have to be based on a wide circle of aspects, as the special context of the genre demands, and the genre group as well as the song occasion makes it necessary.
H. Urbancova, Ústav hudobnej vedy SAV, Dúbravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava 4, Slovak Republic
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