FROM EMIGRATION TO REPATRIATION. SECOND GENERATION POLISH EMIGRANTS IN GREAT BRITTAIN AND POLISH REPATRIANTS FROM KAZAKHSTAN
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Cultural identity of second generation Polish immigrants and repatriates from Kazakhstan is the core issue if the two research projects presented in this paper. Two identity components were measured, after Boski (1992): 1) 'symbol-based', in relation to knowledge and attachment to culturally shared objects; and 2) 'value-based', in relation to prototypical ways of being attributed to a given culture and evaluated within its framework. Identity measures were established in relation to both cultures in which participants have been embedded throughout their lifetimes. Results show that in its symbolic aspect identity with a country where most of life has been lived through, prevails; i.e. with the United Kingdom and Kazakhstan, respectively. In its value-related measure, British-Poles demonstrate a strong Polish component based on distinctive and salient characteristics of parental family home, which were well internalized to become the leading principles of life in their adulthood. With the repatriates, it is high convergence of self with the representation of realistically experienced Polish prototype, which determines life adaptation and satisfaction in the host country. These conditions are met to much higher degree by male than by female repatriates. An idealized image of the ancestral land, which prevails among women has been found dysfunctional for their adaptation.
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