The goal of the paper is to familiarize Czech readers with a widely used psycholinguistic experimental method aimed at word recognition and lexical access, i.e. the lexical decision task. The paper provides solid theoretical basis for preparing own experiments using this method. Based on a review of various previous studies, the general principles of the method, the issues in its design and the typical types of stimuli are discussed. We explain what type of word as well as nonword characteristics affect results of the task and how the reactions towards used stimuli interact with each other. Regarding the experimental design, we discuss the role of feedback, duration times for stimuli presentation, intra-trial intervals, etc. Additionally, attention is paid to the most usual pitfalls and drawbacks of the method. The results of studies on the Czech material are also briefly presented and various tips for future research on Czech are suggested.