LOWER-SILESIAN CARBONIZATION IN THE YEARS 1776-1913 (Dolnoslaskie koksownictwo w latach 1776-1913)
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In Lower-Silesian Coal-Field, where one can find embers of coal gas nature, the first attempt at coking was made in 1776 by dint of experiments that had been made in this field in western Europe, and particularly in Great Britain. Referring to the archival sources and bibliography, in the article was presented a short epitome of the attempts at coking the coal since the 16th century, and the development of Lower-Silesian carbonization from the very beginning to the full and significant development of the brewing interest on the turn of the 19th century. A special attention was paid to the technological progress that could be noticed in the discussed period. A charcoal kiln method of producing coke was not good enough because of the considerable morselling the coal output, so since 1791 a Lower-Silesian coal was coked only in the stoves. Till the half of the 19th century these were sintez and beehive stoves that were still improved and imitated the innovations introduced in other European countries. However, also home methods were worked out. As the changes in Prussian legislation from the fifties and sixties of the 19th century resulted in liberalizing the economy and improving on the development of the mining and coal gas trade, in Lower-Silesian coal basin again one could observe a kind of enlivening of carbonization. In the second half of the 19th century a result of intensive improvements on the stoves' thermal efficiency and possibility of using the coals of the weaker coke properties was constructing the stoves of diaphragm heating the coal gas stalls. The stoves built in the system of Appolt, François-Rexroth, Coppée, Gobiet, Wintzek, Ruhm, and in the best system of Koppers from the beginning of the 20th century, were used in Lower-Silesian coking plants very fast. The first stoves with regenerators constructed by G. Hoffmann in Lower Silesia in 1882 were a significant contribution to technological progress in the field of carbonization. Since then, it was possible to use coal gas rationally and to produce the derivatives of coal. An unfavourable geographic location and a lack of iron stones and metallurgic industry, which is the main recipient of coke, brought about the difficulties with a market. Because of the lack of local stock a small smelting works Vowärts turned out to be an inappropriate investment and after over twenty years crashed. At last, a production of gas, which provided the receivers within a radius of 100 kilometres, and a production of the derivatives of coal from the turn of the 19th century resulted in a rapid development of coal gas industry. The outbreak of World War I and the new political and economic situation put an end to the above-described period and the development of Lower-Silesian coal gas industry.
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