The article is commenced with the supposition that international specialization in products and the competitiveness are taken to mean the same by the theory of international trade and the theory of international economic relations. Specialization and competitiveness are, in fact, very different in substance, internal mechanisms that shape both categories as well as in criteria of their evaluation. We present similarities and differences between the two categories and we indicate that changes in competitiveness do not correspond to changes in specialization. While competitiveness decreases the level of specialization may improve. The article also points to the need that international trade theory should incorporate a dynamic approach to competition which itself is contained in processes of specialization.