The article deals with the philosophical arguments for inviolability of human life. The etymological and historical context is presented as a premise for understanding of the concept of human life and its inviolability. There are several interpretations of it in the history of philosophical thinking. The interpretation with affirmation of transcendence of a human being appears together with discerning contingency of all beings in the world. A human life is regarded as a gift since that moment. This anthropology is based on internal experience of a human him/herself. Both material and transcendent dimensions of a human are affirmed. A human being is understood as a person according to this experience, living in the middle of nature and immersed in it. In the same time s/he transcends nature by way of his/her existence and his/her acts of intellectual knowledge and free will. The fact of being a human person assigns the aim of human life: to master matter by spirit. So death is not only the end of biological life, but also a barrier to development, which is a natural human right.