THE STONE INDUSTRY OF THE FUNNEL BEAKER CULTURE IN THE LIGHT OF MATERIAL FROM THE GAWRONIEC SITE IN CMIELÓW, OSTROWIEC SWIETOKRZYSKI DISTRICT
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The raw material of 805 objects of non-flint rock and a few lumps of hematite from the Funnel Beaker Culture (FBC) settlement was identified by macroscopical examination, opinions of geologists and petrographers, who confirmed the use of sedimentary and crystalline rocks, mainly sandstone and granitoids, some in the form of river pebbles and erratic rocks. Apart from one specimen, the stone is all from the Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains where sandstone and limestone occurred in places of original sedimentation, while crystalline rocks came mostly from secondary deposits of erratic material occurring within the range of the three glaciations in this region. Hematite came from deposits some 50 km to the west of Cmielów. The fnds included 570 rocks with no evidence of processing or wear, and 238 tools, surviving mostly in fragments. Seven different kinds of tools were represented: querns - 70, mainly of crystalline rock; polishing plates - 95, made of quartzite sandstone were used to polish flint axes. Both tools bear evidence of hematite being ground on them. Polygonal whetstones were used to smooth and sharpenimg of tools made of bone, antler and wood. A group of 25 tools is made up of hammerstone-grinders and stone bases, characterized by traces of use. Undressed stones were used for this purpose, first as hammerstones, then as grinders, and also as bases in the production of stone and flint tools. The few tools: 2 axes, a pierced hammer-axe and a fragment of similar tool. The axes with button heads are the most impressive products of the FBC stone industry and can be considered as veritable masterpieces of the stonecutter's art. They constituted weapons, symbols of status and held cult significance. The stoneworking and flint knapping complemented one another in the economy of Neolithic societies. Stone was material for polishing plates and querns, while flnt was essential for producing small tools and sickle inserts. The stone tools used in different cultures do not differ in principle. There is more differentiation in the smaller smoothed tools, the original adzes shaped like cobbler's lasts from the early Neolithic and the highly varied celts of different cultures later on. 10 Figures.
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