The article consists of four parts. In the first, the authoress presents these theses of cognitive linguistics that she finds especially important for lexical contrastive studies. The second part presents selected procedures used during modelling of the picture of the world in a given language. They are as follows: a reconstruction of a structure of conceptual field, a construction of a cognitive definition and analysis of etymologic data which enables to find semantic connections between existing lexemes and to fill possible gaps. Then the authoress explains the specific character of studies that compare conceptual models from different languages. Finally, she discusses the perspectives of the studies presented above and indicates problems worth considering in a contrastive aspect.