All developed countries are facing the serious demographical and economical trends, which include critically low birth rates, increasing costs of the health care per capita and the high frequency of the natural disasters, other calamities or the terrorist attacks. The above risks are connected with the increased damage often not included in the insurance policy. It is questionable who should eventually bear such damages. The injured persons tend to expect a compensation from the insurance companies for the damage on assets or health notwithstanding the reason of the damage. These trends lead to reassessing of the current insurance systems and inventing of the new solutions. One of the possibilities is closer co-operation of a private (commercial or life) and a public insurance. The article describes the several aspects of such cooperation. At the beginning we highlighted some developments of a private and a public insurance, including the mutual elements and differences in the principles of the systems, resulting into examples of co-operation of a private and a public insurance with the respect of their specifics. The empirical findings have proved that the cooperation of a public and a private insurance can create the positive effects by the optimal combination of the instruments. One of the most noticeable effects is a competition leading to the significant improvement of the insurance services. Another positive effect is the prevention and avoidance of the excessive risks, which are managed better by the private insurance companies. The co-operation of a private and a public insurance cannot be implemented in a general way. There are selected areas where the positive effects are clear, but there are also the areas where the impacts are questionable. Both private and public insurance have boarders limiting the possibilities of their cooperation. However, such co-operation seems to be a solution for the selected problems of the current society leading to the increased safety feeling of the citizens.