This text analyses the construction of gender relations in the state-socialist societies, namely the former Czechoslovakia. Main source of findings about these relations are sociological interpretations of 'gender under communism' written predominately for Western audiences after 1989. I propose several theoretical concepts suitable for understanding of the topic, including 'gender order', 'patriarchy', 'communist subject' and 'social organization of masculinity'. On the basis of the texts mentioned above I distinguish between two important processes of the construction of state socialist gender order, which I call 'the unfinished project of women's emancipation' and the 'changed public and private spheres'. Then I turn my attention to locating position of men in the state-socialist gender order. To understand the 'patriarchy of the state socialist type' I find it useful to recognize several types of relations between different groups of men as included in Robert Connell's concept of 'social organization of masculinity': hegemony, subordination, complicity and marginalization. I recognize subordination as the dominant form of masculinity in state-socialist society.