As in Poland, in Germany, too, religion and ethics are seen as alternatives. It is thought in this way that only two positions are possible. Supporters of the first of these speak in defence of the state teaching of the Christian religion - be it Catholic or Protestant or Islam, at the same time in opposition to the religiously neutral lessons in ethics. The second position stands by the obligatory teaching of ethics, which takes the place of religion when parents and/or pupils choose not to attend these lessons. These two positions are joined by one more. In this view, the main role is played by the distinction between the religious and ethical dimensions of general education. A group of academics from the Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany) have presented a theoretical concept from the empirical research they have conducted on the issue, and their initial results.