The article presents the first statistical and quantification survey on Czech production of manuscripts during the period 1450–1550. The aim is to create a picture of the manuscript production during the studied period and to outline mutual relations between the receding manuscript production and the emerging production of printed works within the Czech environment. Material used for the analysis was collected based on registers of book collections of Bohemian and Moravian libraries and archives. The results have confirmed an expected decline in the production of manuscripts – manuscripts created after 1501 constitute only less than one fifth of the total collection. However, the decline was not distributed evenly. The number of produced manuscripts fell especially in the case of religious literature and the majority of secular disciplines. As regards the topics of medicine and law, the decline is not very perceptible. This was probably caused by the fact that Bohemian printing offices did not have sufficient possibilities to produce this type of literature. This broader perspective is counterbalanced by a more detailed probe into private book collections of certain important Bohemian scholars of that time.