This paper tries to assess the process of real and nominal convergence of the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic in comparison with the other New Member States (NMS-8) and the EU-25. The methodology is based on the international comparisons of the macroeconomic indicators, especially by the means of GDP per capita indicator calculated in the purchasing power parity and on the alternative indicators of the real gross domestic income, which comprises gains or losses from the terms of the trade changes. Chapter 1 contains the theoretical and the methodological issues relating to this process. Chapter 2 examines the process of catching-up and the changes of economic position in NMS-8 within the framework of EU-25. It also deals with the trade-off between the real and nominal convergence, especially as regards the comparative price levels (CPL). The perspective of the real and the nominal convergence is analysed at the end of the paper.