BOLOGNA PROCESS: EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE OF REFORMING THE ARCHITECTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION LEVELS
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The three key aspects of the Bologna process are discussed: introduction of 2-level higher education; ECTS; attestation and accreditation (quality) mechanisms. A review of transformations in the higher education from the perspective of the above aspects covers basic documents and actions: Sorbonne Declaration, Bologna Declaration, Congress of Rectors of European HEEs (2001), Prague Communication, Berlin Communication, Joint Quality Initiative created for Helsinki Seminar. The essence of bachelor model, types of master degree, tendencies in the development of doctor degrees in Europe are discussed in detail. The Ukrainian higher education has already launched Bologna transformations, but the four factors should be born in mind. First, a possibility of parallel existence of one-level and two-level programs unless the new model is accepted by broad public and employers, sustained economic revival begins, supposing feedback between economic and education systems, the two-level structure of the higher education is firmly established, based on novel education programs focused on results of education, embodied in competence, rather than on contents and interim parameters. Second, Europe needs to see the Ukrainian type of a diploma specialist as the unique national experience. Third, a possibility of transformation of the two-level structure by the two models/scenarios (bachelor – diploma specialist; bachelor – master), where diploma specialist and master is to be considered as diversification at the 2nd level. Other scenarios are also possible, in view of long-lasting nature of the Bologna process and the premise that the reforms are not focused on the total unification.
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