The Civil War (1861-1865) broke out in the United States as a result of secession of South Carolina (December 20, 1860) and six other southern states, which later established the Confederate States of America (February 8, 1861). The war began with the Confederates' bombardment of Fort Sumter, South Carolina (April 12, 1861) and formally ended with the capitulation of the largest army of the South at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Almost 700,000 people died in four-year-long struggles. However, not all these deaths resulted directly from military actions. Slightly fewer than 1/10 of them lost their lives in prisoner-of-war camps of the enemy party. 106 such camps were created in the territory of the Union, and 117 in the territory of the Confederacy. Camp Sumter (Andersonville, Georgia) was the biggest camp of the Confederate States. About 43,000 prisoners-of-war passed through this camp during the 13 months of its existence. As 13,000 prisoners died there, it is considered to be the most striking example of the Civil War brutalization. The right to life was broken more frequently in Andersonville than in any other prisoner-of-war camp. That is why the author would like to use this camp as an example in his article.
Lukasz Niewinski, Bialystok (Poland), for postal address contact the journal editor
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