Lokál singuláru tvrdých neživotných maskulin (ve vlaku vs. v potoce): úzus a gramatičnost
THE LOCATIVE SINGULAR CASE OF HARD INANIMATE MASCULINE NOUNS (VE VLAKU VS. V POTOCE): USAGE AND GRAMMATICALITY
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Approximately 6000 inanimate appellative masculine nouns in the locative singular case are used in contemporary written Czech. About 400 of these nouns use both the -u and the -e/-e ending. In about 200 nouns the two variant endings occur in a frequency equilibrium or the historical primary -e/-e prevails. The nouns which end with the -h, -g, -f consonants use only the -u ending without exception. The nouns that end with -k, -ch, -r, i.e. the consonants that alternate with -c, -s, -r, and also the nouns ending with -p, -b, -m, which do not alternate, use only the -u ending as a norm, with only a very few exceptions found in standard written Czech. If the frequency and the historical progress of the -u ending are considered, the -e/-e ending in some exceptional uses in nouns ending in -k, -ch, -r; -p, -b, -m can be regarded ungrammatical. The grammatical -e/-e ending is used alternatively, or in rare cases, exclusively, with a considerable number of those nouns which end with -d, -t, -n, but mainly with -s, -z, -l.
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