The authoress of the article makes an attempt to determine the degree to which Osip Mandelstam's literary creativity was known in Poland after 1945. The poet's compositions reception was shaped by time, and his poems were read through the prism of his biography and in the social-political context. Nevertheless, the case of Mandelstam is extraordinary, since he was seen not only as a repressed poet but became also a patron of every persecuted poet, and a symbol of an artist who in his artistic creativity opposed to a totalitarian state. Thus, Mandelstam's pieces allowed Polish writers to enter into a dialogue. The amount of poems inspired by those by Mandelstam is astonishing, and tells about the peculiarity of his reception. Published as underground literature, Mandelstam's writings were politicized. Worth mentioning is thus the value of the studies which point at a universal dimension of the Russian poet's works.