The traditional African medicine and a role of various local plants used in treatment by native doctors is discussed in the paper. It is well known that different methods used by traditional healers will depend on cultural, social and religious environment of a particular African community. Some regions of Nigeria were carefully selected for the detailed case studies. The paper describes in detail various ways of cultivation, harvesting, preparation and storage of plants as well as their impact on the quality of medicines. There are a number of examples of local plants used to treat different diseases in various parts of the country. The authoress indicates also some obstacles in this particular field study being a result of a substantial botanical, cultural and linguistic diversity of Nigeria.