Exercitia aularum. Dny všední a sváteční pážat na dvoře Ferdinanda I. v polovině 16. století ve světle dvou dochovaných instrukcí Exercitia aularum.
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'EXERCITIA AULARUM'. COMMON AND FESTIVE DAYS OF PAGES AT THE COURT OF FERDINAND I IN THE MID-16TH CENTURY IN THE LIGHT OF TWO PRESERVED DIRECTIVES
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Detailed directives for the 'Hofmeister' and preceptor of noble boys, which were analysed and published in the Appendix, enable us to understand the form of pagehood on the Court of Ferdinand I. The pages' daily programme on common and festive days is relatively well documented in the two sources. The pages were systematically trained and educated in court demeanour, so called chivalric exercises: equestrian skill, fencing, ball games, wrestling, running, bar throwing, dancing, classic languages (i.e. Latin), modern languages (i.e. German), religious studies, etc. In addition, they served the monarch at various opportunities, on everyday basis (e.g. serving him at his table) and in some more special situations (e.g. accompanying him on his journeys, or coming to meet him with lanterns when it was dark, etc.). The directives also indicate the division of authority of persons involved in training and educating the pages. They not only comment on the 'Hofmeister' and preceptor, but inform on other persons' duties, too: the sub-preceptor ('Unterpraezeptor') trabants, ('Cammertrabanten'), the landlady ('Hausfrau') and other servants or persons hired for training the boys, e.g. swordsmen. The main role of the directives lies in practical regulation of individual aspects and a thorough superintendence of the noble boys' movements and activities. Emphasis is also put on the religious aspect. Despite the confessional heterogeneity of the court organism, Lutherism was persecuted. During their tutoring, the boys' private reading was regulated and no Lutheran or other harmful books ('luterische oder schenntliche buecher') were permitted. The testifying value of both directives, however, is limited by the impossibility to clearly find out to what extent they were observed in reality. With regard to their factuality and severe sanctions, which were applied in case of violations, they were probably maintained, at least globally. In addition, the directives are not only of a normative nature, ingrained and proven routines were probably taken into account when they were conceived.
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