The main aim of this article is to outline the Spanish point of view on the final phases of the process of Italian unification, and especially Madrid's attitude - ie. the position taken by the government, the court and their diplomatic representative in Rome, Luis José Sartorius, Conde de San Luis - to the problem of the pope's temporary powers in the new situation, defined by the rise of the Republic of Italy. The article examines the tone, content, and comments of Sartorius's reports as well his moves and reactions to the crisis. It seems that his personal qualities were a great asset in his ambassadorial job and later, when he had to leave Rome, which was to become the capital of the Italian Republic. The article concludes with a general assessment of the achievements of Luis José Sartorius in his role as Spain's ambassador to the Holy See and a brief mention of the unresolved riddle of his Polish roots (based principally on the fact that he was the founder of Polonia, a political group known as 'partido polaco'). While writing this study the author used as his primary source Sartorius's diplomatic reports and his private correspondence. They were complemented by materials from contemporary Spanish and Italian newspapers, documents which refer to Sartorius's diplomatic activities from the Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Madrid and ftom the the Vatican Archives, as well publications of historians who have researched the subject.