In this essay, the author inspired by works of Bronislaw Baczko, analyzes the paradoxes that come into being when revolutionary ideals clash with social and political reality. The most visible paradox is that the new government, invoking the revolutionary legitimization, often instead keeping the promise of happiness offers new hatred and slavery. The persistence of this paradox can be seen in different historical periods, not only in the era of the French Revolution. Therefore, when confronted with Baczko's problem of how to come out of terror, the author suggests the opposition against the logic of retaliation and exclusion.
Adam Michnik, Redakcja 'Gazeta Wyborcza', ul. Czerska 8/10, 00-732 Warszawa, Poland
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